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Country Profile Georgia
The protection of cultural heritage is regulated by the “Law of Georgia on Culture Heritage”. It defines different types and levels of cultural heritage protection. These mainly relate to ‘Object’ that can be ‘Immovable Objects’, ‘Movable Objects’ and ‘Complex Objects’. The latter consists of a group of interrelated Immovable and/or Movable Objects. A temporary status is granted to an object while it is decided whether or not it can be ascribed Listed Property status. Listed properties are classified as following:
• Parking/gardening art and landscape architecture
• Monumental fine arts
There are 23 Intangible Cultural Heritage Monuments, 4112 movable listed properties, 7150 immovable listed properties, 3 of international significance (World Heritage Site) and 505 of national significance in Georgia. The Law of Georgia on Cultural Heritage defines a Cultural Heritage Protection Zone as an area, which surrounds immovable cultural heritage properties or/and is within the site of their location or influence, to which a special regulatory regime is applied and the purpose of which is to protect cultural heritage located therein from undesirable impact.
There are two types of protection zone
•Individual Protection Zone;
• General Protection Zone that includes:
o Zone of Protected Historic Part
o Zone of Regulated Development
o Zone of Protected Historical Landscape
o Zone of Protected Archaeology
The Law on Intangible Cultural Heritage, Code of Cultural Heritage and the national policy “Culture 2025” are in the processes of elaboration.
The overall responsibility for cultural heritage protection lies with the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia. The Ministry provides state level funding for heritage and it is responsible for the identification and listing of properties, enhancement of the legal protection system and establishment of the national policy for cultural heritage. It identifies, protects, preserves and restores of cultural heritage mainly through its core Legal Persons of Public Law: The National Agency for Cultural Heritage Preservation of Georgia (NACHPG), National Museum of Georgia and G. Chubinashvili National Research Centre for Georgian Art History and Heritage Preservation.
NACHPG is a major governmental agency responsible for the protection, inventory and promotion of movable and immovable, as well as intangible cultural heritage. It issues permission of archaeological works and works on the listed properties. The agency unifies 9 museum reserves, 2 architectural complexes and 3 museums in different regions of the country. It is responsible for advising the Government in the field of cultural heritage.
The Georgian National Museum is responsible for artifact preservation, conservation and exhibition. It undertakes archaeological excavations and scientific research. GNM unifies 7 museums, 3 regional museum reserves, and 4 house museums, the National Gallery, Archaeological Research Centre and Institute of Paleobiology.
G. Chubinashvili National Research Centre for Georgian Art History and Heritage Preservation is responsible for studding of Georgian art of ancient and modern times, as well as works of art of kept in different museums and private collections in Georgia. It conducts research on the individual monuments of architecture and sculpture, mural and easel painting, graphic arts, applied arts. The Centre also undertakes art historical study of the sites to be restored and provides methodological supervision, assessment and monitoring of works. It takes part in the recording of the movable and immovable heritage properties. One of the main goals of the Centre is popularization of the works of art and of the knowledge about them. Therefore apart from the scholarly publications, it provides wide public with books, albums, booklets and other printed or electronic publications intended for the readers of diverse interests.
Tbilisi City Hall is responsible on issuance of a permission of works on the listed properties in Tbilisi (except properties of the National significance and ecclesiastical buildings). It is also in charge of monitoring of the works on the above-mentioned listed properties.
National laws in the field of cultural heritage:
•Law of Georgia on Export and Import of Cultural Property (2001)
•Law of Georgia on Culture Heritage (2007)
•Law of Georgia on Museums (2001)
All normative acts adopted by state agencies must be published in the Official Gazette of Georgia. A normative act acquires legal effect once posted on https://matsne.gov.ge/en
Most of the published documents are only in Georgian so far.
A list of the international conventions singed by Georgia:
•The Athens Charter for the Restoration of Historic Monuments (1931)
•European Cultural Convention (1954) singed on 25/4/1997 (Signature without reservation as to ratification)
•The Venice Charter: International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (1964)
•Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970) notification of succession on 04/11/1992
•Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972) Notification of succession on 04/11/1992
•Convention for the Protection of the Architectural Heritage of Europe (1985) ratified on 13/4/2000
•Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1999) Accession on 29/08/2003
•Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. The Hague, 14 May 1954 Notification of succession on 04/11/1992
•European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage (Revised) (1992) ratified on 13/4/2000
•European Convention on Landscape (2000) ratified on 15/9/2010
•European Convention for the Protection of the Audiovisual Heritage (2001) ratified on 9/4/2010
•Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003) ratified on 18/03/2008
•UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005) approval on 01/07/2008
•Council of Europe Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society (2005) ratified on 4/2/2011
•Namur Declaration (2015) singed on 24/04/2015
Links of the main organizations working in the field of heritage protection:
Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia http://www.culture.gov.ge/index.php?lang=eng
The National Agency for Cultural Heritage Preservation of Georgia
The Georgian National Museum
G. Chubinashvili National Research Centre for Georgian Art History and Heritage Preservation http://gch-centre.ge/index.php?Id_leng=eng
Agency of Protected Areas